A transformer is a static machine employed for transforming power in one circuit to another one without changing frequency. This really is a simple definition of transformer. Since there is no rotating or moving part so transformer is really a static device. Transformer runs using ac supply. Transformer works in the principle of mutual induction.
If we want to understand the background of transformer we have now go back long inside the 1880s. Around fifty years before that in 1830 property of induction the working principle of transformer was discovered. Later the transformer design was improved resulting in more efficiency and lesser size. Gradually the large capacity of Power transformers for sale in all the different several KVA, MVA came into existence. In the year 1950, 400KV electrical power transformer was introduced in high voltage electrical power system. In the early 1970s, unit rating the size of 1100 MVA was produced and 800KV and also higher KV class transformers were made in year of 1980.
Generation of electrical power in low voltage level is very much cost effective. Theoretically, this low voltage level power might be transmitted for the receiving end. This low voltage power if transmitted leads to greater line current which indeed causes more line lossesBut in the event the voltage measure of an electrical power is increased, the present in the power is reduced which then causes decline in ohmic or I2R losses from the system, decrease in cross sectional area of the conductor i.e. reduction in capital value of the program and it likewise improves the voltage regulation of the machine. As a result of these, low level power should be stepped up for efficient electrical power transmission. This can be done by step-up transformer on the sending side of the power system network. Because this high voltage power may not be distributed to the consumers directly, this has to be stepped right down to the specified level at the receiving end through the help of step down transformer. Electrical power transformer thus plays a crucial role in power transmission. power system Two winding transformers are generally used where ratio of high voltage and low voltage is more than 2. It can be cost-effective to make use of auto transformer in which the ratio between high voltage dexjpky57 low voltage is below 2. Again an individual unit three phase transformer is a lot more cost effective compared to a bank of three power transformer in a three phase system. But an individual three phase transformer unit is hard to transport and must be taken off service entirely if one of several phase winding fails.
Forms of Transformer
Transformers could be categorized differently, depending upon their purpose, use, construction etc. The kinds of transformer are as follows,
Improve Transformer and Step Down Transformer – Generally useful for stepping up and down the voltage measure of power in transmission and distribution power system network.
Three Phase Transformer and Single Phase Transformer – Former is normally found in three phase power system as it is cost-effective than later. However when size matters, it can be preferable to use a bank of three single phase transformer since it is much easier to transport than one single three phase transformer unit.
Electrical Power Transformer, Distribution Transformer and Instrument Transformer – Power transformers are usually found in transmission network for stepping down or up the voltage level. It operates mainly during high or peak loads and it has maximum efficiency at or near full load. Distribution transformer steps on the voltage for distribution purpose to domestic or commercial users. It offers good voltage regulation and operates 24 hrs every day with maximum efficiency at 50% of full load. Instrument transformers include C.T and P.T which are utilized to reduce high voltages and current to lesser values that may be measured by conventional instruments.
Two Winding Transformer and Auto Transformer – Former is usually used where ratio between high voltage and low voltage is greater than 2. It is actually cost effective to work with later the location where the ratio between high voltage and low voltage is lower than 2.
Outdoor Transformer and Indoor Transformer – Transformers that are equipped for installing at outdoor are outdoor transformers and transformers intended for installing at indoor are furnace transformer.
Oil Cooled and Dry Type Transformer – In oil cooled transformer the cooling medium is transformer oil whereas the dry type transformer is air cooled.
Core type, Shell type and Berry type transformer – In core type transformer it offers two vertical legs or limbs with two horizontal sections named yoke. Core is rectangular fit and healthy having a common magnetic circuit. Cylindrical coils (HV and LV) are positioned for both the limbs.
Shell type transformer: It features a central limb as well as 2 outer limbs. Both HV, LV coils are positioned around the central limb. Double magnetic circuit is found.
Berry type transformer: The core appears like spokes of wheels. Tightly fitted metal sheet tanks can be used as housing this sort of transformer with transformer oil filled inside.